Trust Study Guide


Written by AMA Staff
Increasing safety awareness
As seen in the August 2021 issue of Model Aviation.

trust logo

The Recreational UAS Safety Test (TRUST) has a goal of increasing awareness of safety and best practices in our complex National Airspace System (NAS). The FAA requires that all recreational UAS pilots in the US complete TRUST.

AMA has been a resource for model aviation hobbyists since 1936. As a Testing Administrator, AMA ensures that hobbyists have an easy way to accomplish this training. This guide will ensure that you can quickly pass TRUST and potentially learn something new along the way.

Frequently Used Terms

It probably comes as no surprise that a training and certification called TRUST is full of abbreviations, acronyms, and official terminology. Here are some of the terms and their abbreviations with which you should be familiar.

FAA (Federal Aviation Administration): The US government agency under the Department of Transportation that is responsible for the safety of civil aviation.

Recreational flier: A person flying purely for fun, and not in support of any business operation (whether paid or unpaid). If you’re doing work with your aircraft, even if it’s for fun, you are required to obtain your Part 107 license.

TFR (temporary flight restriction): Airspace that is temporarily off limits because of VIP travel, large events, natural disasters, and more. The amount of warning before implementation, the length of time the restrictions are in place, and the area included will be defined in each TFR. Remember, unauthorized flying in a restricted airspace is a federal crime.

LAANC (low-altitude authorization and notification capability): An FAA program run in collaboration with approved UAS Service Suppliers (USS) that automates the application and approval process for airspace authorizations. It provides pilots with access to controlled airspace at or below 400 feet and air traffic professionals with visibility into where and when model aircraft are operating.

USS (UAS service suppliers): Companies approved by the FAA to provide LAANC services to users via mobile apps or desktop applications. The AMA recommends UASidekick, but there are many other great options available. Visit

VLOS (visual line of sight): Recreational fliers must be able to see their aircraft in flight at all times. If flying FPV, this requirement can be satisfied by an additional spotter/visual observer who is standing physically next to the pilot.

FPV (first-person view): FPV flight involves flying a radio-controlled aircraft while viewing the flight through a set of VR (virtual reality) goggles or another screen that simulates the pilot’s view as if he or she were sitting in the cockpit of the aircraft. The pilot looks at the screen to fly instead of at the physical aircraft, which is why the assistance of a spotter/visual observer is necessary to maintain VLOS.

Spotter/visual observer: A person, other than the pilot, who also maintains visual contact with the aircraft in flight. The VLOS requirement can be satisfied by using a spotter in cases of FPV flight; however, the spotter must be physically next to the remote pilot and must maintain VLOS contact with the model aircraft at all times.

CBO (community-based organization): Recreational fliers are required to follow the safety guidelines of a CBO that is officially recognized by the FAA, such as AMA. The FAA has recognized AMA’s safety code as a resource in ensuring that model aviation pilots are prepared to safely operate in the NAS.

To ensure that you are flying your model aircraft legally, follow these three steps: Choose the right place to fly, have the correct documentation, and practice safety.

Operational Guidelines

Choosing the right place to fly: controlled vs. uncontrolled airspace: The US NAS is large and complex. It is designed and regulated to help make the skies safe for everyone. How can you be sure that you choose the right place to fly?

Uncontrolled airspace: You don’t need special permission from the FAA to safely operate your model aircraft in uncontrolled airspace. Uncontrolled airspace is typically found close to the ground, away from airports.

Generally, you must fly below 400 feet in uncontrolled airspace to remain legal. AMA has worked with the FAA to get waivers allowing specific AMA chartered clubs to fly higher than 400 feet Above Ground Level (AGL). Contact AMA’s Government Affairs department to learn more about this process!

Before taking to the sky with your model aircraft, you should check with your FAA-approved USS, such as UASidekick, to confirm that you are flying in uncontrolled airspace.

Controlled airspace: Controlled airspace is typically found in proximity to populated areas and airports. You can use the USS of your choice to be sure. If you find yourself in controlled airspace but want to fly recreationally, how do you accomplish this?

You can do this in one of two ways. You can use your FAA-approved LAANC UAS service supplier, such as UASidekick, to request a recreational flight. If approved, you should be able to receive your authorization in real time. In areas not covered by LAANC, you should use FAADroneZone to make your request.

Alternatively, as an AMA member, you can utilize the AMA Club Locator to see clubs in the vicinity that might include preauthorized FAA-Recognized Identification Areas (FRIAs). You can find out more about FRIAs by visiting

Documentation and Certification

Have the correct documentation: Chances are good that you will never be asked to provide any documentation to law enforcement or FAA representatives, but if asked, you should be able to provide proof that you have obtained the FAA TRUST documentation, as well as proof of your FAA registration. If you received authorization via LAANC or FAADroneZone to fly in controlled airspace, you should also be prepared to show proof of that.

TRUST certification: Immediately after you complete TRUST, you’ll receive a completion certificate that you can print and/or save electronically. This is your only chance to retain proof of passing TRUST! Because of the nature of the test and FAA regulations, we cannot help you prove that you passed. If you lose your certificate, you will be required to retake the test.

FAA registration: As a recreational model aircraft pilot, you must register with the FAA to receive your FAA number. You are required to display this number on the exterior of any model aircraft that is heavier than 0.55 pounds or 250 grams. The pilot can determine the size, typeface, and specific location of the number on the exterior. There is no need to register each individual aircraft as a recreational pilot. Your personal registration number can go on all of your aircraft.

Practice Safety

You, the remote pilot in command, are ultimately responsible for the aircraft and have a duty to ensure that it operates safely within the airspace. You can do this by being knowledgeable about your aircraft, being consistent with safety checks, and being aware of the airspace.

Be knowledgeable: Before you operate any model aircraft, you must understand how that aircraft operates. Read the safety manual that comes with each model aircraft and have a firm understanding of how to safely operate it. As a part of this process, you should understand what failsafe options are at play in case of a loss of signal, as well as any contingency plans you should have in place should a failure occur.

Automated features such as GPS or autopilot should be fully understood before real-world flight operations. If you are building the model aircraft, be sure to research and solicit feedback from qualified aeromodelers before flying. When in doubt, research, prepare, and find a qualified mentor who can help. You can utilize the AMA Club Locator to seek out other recreational fliers in your area.

Be consistent: Develop a standard operating procedure, including a preflight and postflight checklist for each model aircraft. It will save you time and money, as well as ensure a safer flying experience.

Check your aircraft: Although each model aircraft might have a separate procedure, you should always check all moving parts, connections, propellers, batteries, and fuel during these inspections. If you find an issue, repair or replace before your next flight.

flying site

Check your flying site: You should also consider the conditions at your flying area. Is there potentially dangerous weather, such as high wind, fog, or rain, that could create an unsafe flying environment? You should avoid distractions and be aware of your surroundings while flying your model aircraft.

Check yourself: Your preflight check should include things such as silencing your mobile phone and communicating your intentions with those nearby. It is important to consider whether you have taken any medications or other substances that might affect you during your flight.

Be aware: During your flight, you are responsible for being aware of your altitude, seeing and avoiding other aircraft, and operating the model aircraft within the confines of a CBO’s safety guidelines.

Altitude: Remember, you must generally fly below 400 feet in uncontrolled airspace to stay legal.

Seeing and avoiding other aircraft: Manned flight operations must always take priority over recreational model aircraft flights. No matter what, when you observe a manned flight that has a chance of interfering with your model aircraft flight, you must land your aircraft as safely and as soon as possible. Using a spotter while flying your model aircraft is a good way to ensure that any potential concerns are mitigated as safely and as quickly as possible.

Following a CBO’s safety guidelines: Fortunately, the AMA has a proven record of safety since 1936 and is recognized by the FAA as an official CBO. Flying within our safety code is the best pathway to success. You can find the most current safety code at


For more information or to take the test, visit

By AMA staff [email protected] [email protected]

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